Got your cup ready? Let’s pick up on a few facts about coffee, just so we know what is it all about :)
Information about coffee plant
Coffee is a flowering, perennial plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas.
The tree of coffee has green shiny leaves which remain the same through all seasons (an evergreen plant). Coffee leaves have dark green color on the upper side and much lighter underneath.
Although coffee tree can grow high, it is usually kept 2 to 3 meters high (to make harvesting easier).
Beside being an evergeen plant, coffee is also a member of flowering plants family. This is why we see beautiful white aromatic flowers on coffee tree during the flowering season.
And yes, if the climate is right, you can grow some in your back yard :)
Now, we all know what is most famous part of a coffee tree – coffee bean.
The coffee bean looks more like cherry and it’s in fact a coffee plant seed or fruit (both are correct).
Depending on coffee type, the shape and color of coffee bean may vary. For example, varieties of arabica coffee have flatter beans with light to dark green color, while varieties of robusta coffee have beans that are more rounded with pale green color and brown or gray shades.
Coffee tree gives first fruit three to fours years after planting. But, if we know that coffee gives fruit for next 10 to 20 years, the patience that coffee growing demands certainly pays off.
Coffee maturation process
During the maturation process, coffee beans are green at first, then they turn red and finally dark red. You get the best coffee quality when you harvest the red berries. Harvesting of green (too young) or dark red (overripe) beans, is a perfect way to ruin coffee quality.
This is why producers give most of their attention to the coffee harvesting process. Let’s not forget that it’s a long way from planting to coffee bean harvesting.
So, in order to achieve good results in coffee production (or results at all), the main condition of successful coffee cultivation is providing the best possible climate and temperature conditions for coffee trees.
Where does coffee grow
All mayor coffee production countries are located in the southern hemisphere since they have the perfect climate conditions for coffee growth.
Conditions that should be provided for successful coffee plant growth depend on the type of coffee. All variations of coffee love a lot of rainfalling or at least good irigation system.
Still, arabica is much more demanding. It requires stable climate conditions, temperature of 15 to 24 degrees Celsius and it’s not very resistant to plant diseases. Other coffee types are resistant to temperature changes and high temperatures in general (the ideal temperature for them is 18 to 36 deg. Celsius).
Top coffee production countries have shown that putting together hard work and good climate makes for the perfect coffee growth recipe.
Best coffee countries
Regarding to all the info above,here is a list of the best coffee production and exporting countries today: